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Techniques for calibration and clock-model selection are also described, along with methods for handling multilocus data sets. ABSTRACT: Background Early methods for estimating divergence times from gene sequence data relied on the assumption of a molecular clock.

We conclude our review with some comments about the future of molecular clocks. More sophisticated methods were created to model rate variation and used auto-correlation of rates, local clocks, or the so called ┬┐uncorrelated relaxed clock┬┐ where substitution rates are assumed to be drawn from a parametric distribution.

ABSTRACT: Human populations are constantly exposed to emerging pathogens such as influenza A viruses that result from cross-species transmissions.

Generally these sporadic events are evolutionary dead-ends, but occasionally, viruses establish themselves in a new host that offers a novel genomic context to which the virus must adjust to avoid attenuation. Here we present a novel method to characterize the time it takes to G C composition at third codon positions (GC3 content) of influenza viruses to adjust to that of a new host.

These estimates can lead to important insights into evolutionary processes and mechanisms, as well as providing a framework for further biological analyses.